This Unit 3 human resource management pass copy discuss Managing human resources is one of the most important functions in an organization that can show it the direction it needs to move on its path of desired success. Human resources cover almost every dimension in the organizational structure. Thus, human resources range across a diverse set of functions, from the strategic planning and allocating resources, towards optimizing the performances of employees through factors like motivation, performance management and training (Mondy, Noe and Gowan, 2005). In this paper, we deal with the intricate details of the procedures of managing human resources and look closer into ‘Innocent Drinks’ an organization that has made significant strides in the UK market. The paper also attempts will also go deep into the task of suggest human resource management strategies, techniques and models that can applied for the company, Innocent drinks, who wishes to cut a niche for itself in the market with its tasty and healthy drinks and food products.
a) Guest’s model of HRM and HRM practices of Innocent Drinks
The Guest model was developed by David Guest who had proposed a model of human resource management based on the amalgamation of the soft and the hard approach.
The Hard HRM approach, according to the Storey is more of the instrumentalist approach where workers are perceived as resources that need to regulated and monitored to achieve better performance results. The Soft approach to HRM perceives the workers as a valuable resource for the organization and creates a system where they can provide their best to the organization and also enhance their skills and growth. The company Innocent Drinks has seen to be following a softer approach that concerns with a more ‘people oriented approach’ (Nelson, 1994).
The Guest model specifies the following aspects:
- Strategic Integration: as expressed by Guest is to create a bridge between the human resource strategy and the strategy of business performance. So, effective and efficient HRM practices should incorporate both the Human resource strategies along with the business strategies to help the organization reach higher objectives and goals.
- Flexibility: is another important aspect of human resource management that concerns with the ability of the organization to adapt to its changing environment and create systems that encourage the organization towards reaching greater capacities of innovation and capabilities, and to the capacity to manage innovation. Flexibility makes the work environment more supportive and pleasing for the employees and helps them to optimize their performance.
- Commitment: is the ability of the employees in an organization to push and achieve something extra for the organization and themselves. A committed workforce has always proved to be an asset for any organization since it can produce better results (Noe, 2006).
- Quality: in goods and services offered by the organization not just scripts a success in the market but also motivates the employees to strive for higher goals. The success of the organization means better returns even for the employees and so, it increases commitment, motivation and efficiency.
b) HRM development stage of Innocent Drinks and its strategic approach
Since Innocent Drinks follows a Soft HRM strategy of ‘people approach’ it requires distinct organizational strategies that can support the same. The company itself is in an advanced stage of development and need the contributions of the organization to consolidate its practices.
- Planning, resourcing and retention: is crucial to the company since it needs to have a clear understanding of its staffing and recruitment needs and the nature of people to shoulder its various organizational responsibilities. So, the company needs to understanding its staffing needs, recognize the talent and encourage them to achieve better results.
- Recruitment and selection: strategy should reflect a clear plan. The company needs to have a significantly strong advertising line to invite talented and skilled individuals. Once that is ascertained, the company must have a robust policy of short listing potential candidates and going through a series of evaluations to identify the most suitable candidate for the post (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2003).
- Training and development: is necessary to lend the necessary skills and knowledge to the employees and make them better equipped to handle greater responsibilities and performing their tasks with improved results. Training and development also creates greater opportunities for individuals in their professional endeavour, motivating them to work for higher goals.
- Reward remuneration: is crucial to the employees in a soft HRM approach since it presents significant benefits to the employees based on their performance. This can motivate the employees. Incentives and benefits of higher pay, promotion, greater recognition and other benefits can help the employees stay focused and committed.
- Employee relations: stand on the core values of trust and mutual co-operation. An organization where the relations between the employees and the employers is stable and is based on the values on mutual trust, mutual benefits and co-operation achieves better organizational performance (Saul, 1996).
c) Implementation of a model of flexibility in Innocent Drinks
The Flexible Firm Model developed by Atkinson and Meager’s model is one of the most widely followed and acceptable models for organizational flexibility. The model talks about four types of flexibility that organizations may seek.
- Functional flexibility: is the capability and capacity of the business organization to adapt and change as it is required due to the changing work patterns and production methods. This is achieved by removing the traditional set of skills between the occupational groups and creating a multi discipline and multi skilled approach which also helps in improving efficiency and reduce costs.
- Numerical flexibility: is the ability of the organization to modify and adapt its utilization of labour resources and inputs to meet fluctuations in production output. This has given rise to the variation in the utilization of workers and work hours. Part time employees, temporary and short term staff have been helpful in achieving this flexibility. This has also created a difference in the permanent staff of the organization and the staff working on a time-bound engagement contract. The rising population and employment needs of the people have also contributed to this aspect (Schuler, 1998).
- Financial flexibility: is the achievement of organization flexibility by a flexible pay and reward system that creates a distinct demarcation between employees.
- Temporal flexibility:is achieved through the work hours put in by the employees and the pattern of work that they put in the organization (Sherman, Bohlander and Chruden, 1988).
d) Types of flexibility which may be applied by Innocent Drinks
Organization’s need to attain a level of flexibility in the organization to earn the ability to adapt to the changing situations and environment without adding more strain to the organizational structure to meet certain situations that can test its capabilities. This not just adds more capabilities to the organization but also allows the employees a greater level of freedom to commit and give their best.
Some of the most common types of flexibility adopted by several organizations are:
- Part-time working and segregation of work hours: have lent great flexibility to the organization. Part time workers and workers who have different work shifts have added flexibility.
- Compressed working hours: allows the employees to pick the number of days that he needs to work in order to fulfil his allotted work hours.
- Term-time working: is the arrangement where employees are specified their work hours in the organization that they need to put up in a particular, aforementioned week.
- Annual hours: is the arrangement where the employee and the employer have reached an agreement on the work hours that one is required to put. The employer then reserves some work hours from the annual work hours allotted and utilizes the same in time of peak pressures of organizational emergencies (Molander and Winterton, 1994).
a) Flexible work practices from the employee-employers perspective
Most businesses are slowly learning the importance and the need to adopt flexibility approaches for the smooth functioning of the organization. For Innocent Drinks, the professional management and leadership can look at the advantages of the same from the perspectives of both the employers and the employees.
- Advantages for the employers: include the important advantage of improved competitiveness since it allows them to arrange their organization and human resources according the changing market environment and requirements in case of an urgency. This facility of organizational flexibility allows employers to organize its human resources and productivity more efficiently, thus improving product quality, improving efficiency and increasing profits. This facility also allows employers to optimize working hours according to the needs of the organization based on specific requirements and extend productive hours, to secure better results (Minten, 2010).
- Advantages for the employees: include the fact that it allows them greater freedom to balance their personal life and requirements along with their professional duties and responsibilities. This allows them to strike a balance between enjoying the comfort and leisure’s of life and fulfilling professional duties. It allows employees to focus on their health, personal commitments and stay motivated and enthusiastic for their professional endeavour.
b) Impact of changes in labour market on flexible working practices
Flexibility has added a lot of dynamism to a business organization and has allowed it to create plans that can be implemented at a time when the organization faces an emergency or uncertainty. Changes in labour market have also impacted flexibility in the work environment.
The impact of innovation and changing technology: has resulted in greater need for employee flexibility. The advancements in modern technology have altered the dependence on human labour which has changed the application of human resources. Thus, companies can moderate their usage of human resources according the need of the hour to manage a smooth business organization and also control the costs (Mathis and Jackson, 2003).
Wage flexibility: has helped maintain costs in the organization. Companies can have a clear distinction between regular employees and part-time, contractual employees and determine wages on the demand-supply factors of wages. Thus, flexibility work options have also brought about a rationalization of payment options, which can be altered to suit a performance- driven wage determination system.
Geographical flexibility: has helped companies bridge the gap created by geographical barriers of communication and work by implementing technology. Employees are able to travel to different regions and handle the duties assigned to them. Modern technology has also helped companies conduct work with their clients or counterparts who are based out of a different geographical location even without their physical presence (Martin, 2009).
a) Forms of discrimination that can take place in an organization
There are several types of discriminatory practices that an organization may engage in.
- Gender Discrimination: is one of the most undesirable acts in the modern society. Discriminating against someone or denying a person one’s rights on the basis of one’s gender amounts to gender discrimination. The inequitable or unfair treatment of an employee based on one’s gender brings in gender discrimination which has forced organizations to adopt a gender equality policy.
- Racial discrimination: is the most common form seen in most organizations where a person is discriminated on the basis of their race and ethnicity. Employers in the past have denied the rights of individuals only because of their racial belongings which have prompted the government into ensuring racial equality through legislative directives and guidelines (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin and Cardy, 2001).
- Age Discrimination: can happen when certain people are denied their rights in the organization due to their age. Most organization prefers to offer employment opportunities to young employees rather than the older professionals.
- Disability Discrimination: is the form of discrimination where an individual is denied one’s deserved rights only on the basis of a physical disability. The physical disability of individuals in an organization makes the organization doubt their contributions and choose able bodied individuals.
- Religious Discrimination: takes place today die to the difference in religious values of the individual with that of the company and its management. Organizations need to refrain from the practices of denying employees their rights on the basis of religious belief and practices.
- Pay and Compensation Discrimination: happens when the employees are not paid their rightful wage due to discriminatory practices based on sex, religion, race or disability. Such practices have been prevented through legislations and guidelines issued by governments and other regulatory agencies (Bach and Edwards, 2013).
b) Practical implications of equal opportunities legislation
The Equality Act 2010 prohibits discriminatory practices on the basis of colour, caste, religion, gender or any other basis. So, the Equality Act 2010 safeguards the rights of the employees and protects them from discriminatory practices in the organization. This legislation protects from:
- Indirect discrimination and discrimination by association: presents rules that are same for everyone in the organization except for an employee due to his allegiance or proximity with a particular group. Such discrimination takes place when an employee is being discriminated against due to his association or allegiance to certain individuals and groups.
- Perception discrimination: happens when there is a perception of favourable treatment of an individual or group. So, when other employees feel a certain individual is facing favourable treatment, it is considered as perception discrimination (Bohlander and Snell, 2004).
- Harassment and Victimization: is the unfair practice of violating the dignity of another person and treating him unfairly. Individuals may face harassment on the workplace due to several reasons and can be subject to unfavourable and hostile treatment. Harassments and victimizing practices can make an individual face demeaning conditions where self respect and dignity is violated.
c) Comparison of approaches to managing equal approaches and diversity
An organization being a conglomeration of people from different backgrounds, beliefs and belongings has a diversity that needs to be managed, providing equal opportunities for all without any discrimination. The basic difference between presenting equal opportunity and managing diversity comes from the practices that govern them.
Most practices that encourage equal rights and performance based parameters within the organization are ways of managing and encouraging diversity. The guidelines and regulations from governments, social organizations, ethical practices and human rights factors work towards equality in the organization (Cascio, 1998). The goal of equality is to present opportunities of equal treatment without any basis of discrimination. This means that the organization would draw up the yardstick to determine the basis on which it treats its employees, in accordance to the Equality Act 2010.
Diversity on the other hand means the amalgamation of people from different background, cultural and religious beliefs. Diversity is managed by encouraging employees by recruiting new employees with similar cultural, lingual and ethnic diversity. Most organizations are sympathetic to the beliefs and practices followed by every ethnicity and different religion. Flexibility in the organizational culture has encouraged and facilitated diversity (Chruden and Sherman, 1984).
a) Different methods of performance management
Performance management is one of the most important tools used in an organization to assess the performance of employees and identify the shortcomings in the organization.
Annual performance appraisal: is one of the most popular performance management tool practiced in several organizations. Performance appraisals can be carried out by members in a team, in departments, by senior management or by oneself. This helps assess if the employees have been able to achieve the targets that they had set for themselves. Performance appraisals can also be used as a motivational tool by giving benefits and incentives to the high performing employees. The employees whose performances have not been satisfactory can also be encouraged for better results (Dessler, 2000).
Review meetings: are another popular tool for performance management. Teams and departments can carry out their reviews in meetings that are chaired by the head of the respective team or department. These meetings can be used to evaluate the performance of the individuals with important and valuable feedback from the leader. These meetings can also be conducted by the senior management who can take feedback of the performance of the employees from their respective team leaders and departments.
Development function: is the tool of performance management that can clearly indicate when the employees are performing well and when they are not. This gives a clear identification of the areas that an employee needs to improve (Nelson, 1994).
b) Approaches to the practice of managing employee welfare
Organizations over the years have concentrated in offering employees health welfare benefits. Most companies have initiated welfare programs that offer assistance to employees.
- Personnel Assistance Programs: help the employees in their personal issues, family issues and other issues that pertain to their personal life. Some companies have also added health insurance benefits for the employees and their spouses.
- Development and Training: facilities help employees learn improved professional skills and knowledge that can help shape their professional careers, presenting them better future earnings prospects (Rothwell and Kazanas, 2003).
c) Implication of health and safety legislations on human resource practices
Health and safety legislations have several impacts on an organization. Additional costs are incurred by the organization due to these legislations which guide organizations to provide health and safety benefits to employees. The employers’ responsibility of ensuring health and safety at the workplace has meant that the companies have had to initiate programs that can lend health benefits to employees. So, companies have focused on providing health insurance, medical allowance and other health benefits to the employees (Minten, 2010). Several companies have also extended health insurance benefits to employees and their spouses and have conducted annual medical camps where the employees and their families could get a complete medical check-up.
d) Impact of one topical issue on human resource management
Adapting and changing to the modern technology is one of the most important issues of human resource management. Upgrading technology not only adds several benefits to the organization, it also brings in apprehensions in the minds of the employees. The work of management is to effectively communicate the advantages of the same and motivate the employees by informing them about the opportunities it would bring in the organization (Mathis and Jackson, 2003). Technology would also mean better handling to achieve the desired organizational efficiency and so, human resources would need improved training and development programs to prepare the employees to handle the technology and make the most out of it, increasing productivity and improving the organizational efficiency. The managers can also arrange for flexible working environment and create options that can help motivate the employees and keep them committed to the goals and objectives of the organization. Innocent Drinks too can adopt similar strategies of management in their organization and make use of the advancements in technology in harmony with their human resources (Bach and Edwards, 2013).
This Unit 3 human resource management pass copy has spoken extensively about the intricacies of human resource management and has presented a detailed analysis of some of the most important strategies, models and methods that can help in the growth of the organization. Most of the strategies mentioned can also be extrapolated to ‘Innocent Drinks’ a company that continues to make steady strides in the market (Chruden and Sherman, 1984).
Bach, S. and Edwards, M. (2013). Managing human resources. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Bohlander, G. and Snell, S. (2004). Managing human resources. Mason, OH: Thomson/South-Western.
Cascio, W. (1998). Managing human resources. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
Chruden, H. and Sherman, A. (1984). Managing human resources. Cincinnati: South-Western Pub. Co.
Dessler, G. (2000). Human resource management. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Gomez-Mejia, L., Balkin, D. and Cardy, R. (2001). Managing human resources. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Martin, J. (2009). Human resource management. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Mathis, R. and Jackson, J. (2003). Human resource management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-western.