Pearson BTEC Level 4/5 HNC/D Diploma Travel and Tourism - Unit 3 : The Developing Manager

Unit Description

This Managerial Professional Development Assignment is given for the developing manager unit, in this skills required for managerial work has been discussed with the example of organization named Whitechapel Tourism Development.

LO1

Present comparison of TWO management styles that you believe as used by your manager in your organization, Whitechapel Tourism Development.

Chart of WTD

 whitechapel-organization-structure

Management Styles used at WTD

The case basically presents the current structure at WTD. The organization is not at all flat and has various levels of decision making. Chief Executive is the head of the organization who has three Deputy Chief Executives (DCEs) reporting directly to him. Three divisions i.e. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality are headed by a DCE each. Each DCE has 75 employees working for him and with recent addition of 16 Management Trainees; the number of employees has increased.

 The management styles present in the organization is as follows.

  • Autocratic Management Style

In this type of management style, the manager takes decisions unilaterally without any thought for the subordinates. The decision making process is limited with the manager with very little feedback from the sub ordinates. The manager does not care about the issues encountered by the employees and wants the order to be followed with positive results.

Deputy Chief Executive of Tourism department is using this type of management style.

  • Active Management Style

In this type of management style, as its name suggests, the manager plays a very active role. He tries to show the path to his subordinates by setting an example of how a particular task should be done. Employees find this motivating. Deputy chief executive of Hospitality department is managing his team with a style similar to Active management style. He finishes most of the work by himself expecting his team to do the same. At the same time he doesn’t trust them with their work and is resulting is negativity amongst the members.

Characteristic of Management Styles

  1. Autocratic Management Style:

autocratic-management-style

  • Unilateral Decision Making: Manager takes all the decision.
  • High Turnover: The employee turnover will be very high.
  • No Respect: The manager does not have any respect in decision making abilities of others.
  • Demotivator: The style decreases the motivation levels of the employees.
  1. Active Management Style:

active-management-style

  • More Responsibility: Managers are more responsible towards work.
  • Initiative: Manager takes most of the initiatives which has positive results.
  • Motivating: Seeing the manager lead by example, motivates the subordinates to perform to their potential.
  •  Perfectionist: Managers are very precise in their work and expect their subordinates to be the same.

Communication process at WTD

Every organization has a structure and it is very important for smooth functioning of the same. Small organizations can still manage with flat structures, but organizations with significant workforce need to have a structure. In WTD the communication is both formal and informal in nature. The three formal ways of communication are depicted below:

The figure represents the different types of communication process used in WTD.

communication-process-wtd

  1. Upward communication

As its name suggests, in this managing communications is easy, happens from lower level to the higher level. Employee can communicate with their senior management using any means to carry out this activity. The can raise their concerns about any issue at hand.

  1. Downward communication

As its name suggests, this communication happens from a higher level to the lower ones and exists in hierarchical structure. It consists of feedback or orders in general.

  1. Lateral communication

It happens within the employees at same level in an organization. They basically share details and suggestions to complete the task at hand.

Organizational Culture at WTD

Culture in its very basic sense is a way of life. Similarly as far as Organizational Culture is concerned, it basically refers to the acceptable norms in an organization. It encompasses value, vision, belief etc. at a particular work place.

Now coming on to the example of WTD, the structure has hierarchy. The duties and responsibilities are delegated and each person is supposed to carry out the task assigned. It results in quick communication and resolution of issues encountered.

Hierarchy helps in swift solution of problems encountered, however at WTD the people occupying the positions of DCEs are very different from each other. They have their individual style of working and hence the culture across each division varies significantly. Each of them has their pros and cons. Some of them can result in conflict while some can provide desired results. Hence a combination of culture, picking up the positive points of each will go a long way in making sure that the organization is successful.

LO2

A. Essential Managerial Skills

We live in the modern world which is fast and very complex in nature. The complexities of the things in everyday life are increasing day by day and hence one must be a good developing manager not just in professional but personal life as well to be successful in life. A manager is someone who controls resources and in turn decides how to use them to produce effective results. They assume more importance in the corporate setting considering the higher stakes involved. In this dynamic environment, change is omnipresent. The dynamics of industries are changing so quickly that you need to able to manage this change and come out on top to be effective. Thus while tackling change, the line of people responsible for smooth transition or acceptance to new style of working is managers. The people may not be necessarily managers but anyone who has subordinates to look after (Caproni & Arias, 1997).

Very often the following two terms are confused i.e. leadership and management. While leaders bring in the vision, challenge and inspiration but it won’t be effective if management is not efficient in implementing the set out objectives and goals. It is said that leaders are born, but anybody can become a good manager with experience having basic skills. I believe I have the following skills which make me a good manager:

  1. Human Touch: The most important managerial quality I possess is the human touch. A manager is someone who manages people. My subordinate is a human first and then an engineer, salesperson etc. A manager should be kind and considerate towards the subordinates and must know them personally and as well as professionally.
  2. One shouldn’t be overly critical: Everybody is bound to make mistakes but an effective manager is someone who is not very critical of the mistakes of its subordinates. Having more knowledge and experience must make you the guiding light to make sure that the subordinates perform well. Being overly critical of their mistakes, only breaks their confidence which is harmful in the long term and I understand the same (Bruch & Ghoshal, 2004).
  3. Motivator: This is one of the most important qualities a manager must possess. Motivation drives people to deliver their optimum performance and a great manager will give the highest importance to this trait. Motivation can be financial or emotional. Financial rewards to perform any task will certainly motivate people to deliver, however even some kind word of appreciation are more than enough to drive people to work in a motivated manner (El-Sabaa, 2001). I believe I will be able to motivate my subordinates and drive them to deliver their optimum performance.
  4. Available & Open to New Ideas: Every good manager should be available to the subordinates always. He should be open to new ideas as new ideas can bring in different views and help in resolution of the problem quickly. I understand the importance of these two factors and possess them which help me in being a good manager.

For the promotion of Whitechapel Tourism Development, the above mentioned managerial skills are of utmost importance.

B. SWOT ANALYSIS

Strengths Weaknesses
  • Understand the importance of Human touch
  • Personal relationship with all the subordinates
  • Less critical and more suggestive in nature
  • Ability to motivate others
  • Always available
  • Open to new ideas
  • Having personal relationship with sub ordinates sometimes make them casual in approach.
  • Being open to ideas, sometimes consumes more time to take a decision.
  • Being always available to subordinates has a bearing on the personal and professional life balance.
Opportunities Threats
  • I am looking for a career in tourism industry; hence WTD will provide me significant exposure and experience.
  • Great performance here will set the tone for a wonderful career not only in tourism but in fields requiring effective management.
  • Considering that the major tourist event i.e. London Olympics is gone, the task at hand is more challenging.
  • The culture at WTD is not conducive to start the career and might actually turn out to be very challenging.

C. Objectives and Targets in the next four years

Proper planning is a must in order to achieve something substantial. Thus I have set forth some objectives and goals for me which I would like to achieve in the coming four years. By dedication & hard work these can be achieved in the stipulated time. Following are some objectives and targets which I would like to achieve in the coming years:

  1. Gain good working exposure in the tourism industry to make sure that I have a good start to my career.
  2. Perform to my potential at WTD during the initial period by using my theoretical as well as practical knowledge.
  3. Get well versed with the basics of the tourism industry.
  4. I would like to lead by example in my professional life so that I get the respect of my colleagues.
  5. Take steps to overcome the weaknesses possessed by me.
  6. Develop new skills to keep up with the changing dynamics of the industry.
  7. Embrace technology for effective management.
  8. Gain quality experience and occupy a position of significance in a reputed organization.

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LO 3

A. Motivate the team

Considering that the big event i.e. London Olympics is gone and the next big event is Worlds Travel Market exhibition in February 2014, hence motivating the team is of paramount importance. We have to use a lot of marketing strategy to make sure that the desired result is achieved. The focus of the team and all the actions taken should be unidirectional and must converge in a single goal. Let us discuss some of the theories which will be effective in leading and motivating people:

  1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:

This is one of the most popular and widely discussed theories of motivation. The proposition provided by Maslow is based on Human behaviour. It considers that every man has needs and as soon as he satisfies one need, he moves on to the next level of needs.

 The five stages of the needs are:

  • Self-actualization
  • Esteem needs
  • Belongingness and Love needs
  • Safety needs
  • Physiological needs

Let us start with the basic need i.e. physiological needs. The physiological needs for an employee include acceptable salary and decent working conditions with proper breaks (Huitt, 2004). While working at WTD each employee will be entitled to the same. After the physiological need is satisfied, we move to the safety needs. Health and Safety at workplace is a very important part of any workplace. More productive workplaces are those which are perceived as safe by the employees. Considering that the work will mostly be in and around London, the question of safety is taken care of. After catering to the basic needs we move on to the Psychological needs. First of those is, belongingness and love needs. Man is a social creature and he wants to be loved and more importantly accepted. I will try to create an atmosphere of trust and bonhomie amongst the tem makers to make sure that they feel themselves as a part of the whole process and not work in isolation. Next moving onto the esteem needs, everyone wants to be appreciated for their work. Rewards even if not financial can motivate employees to work better. Appreciating within the team and say personal letters of appreciation will go a long way in satisfying the esteem needs of the team which I will try to keep a part of my approach for the team. The last need is self-actualization and the people who will be involved deeply with the whole process, will help in the achievement of not only the team’s objective but personal goals as well and it will provide them required exposure and experience to face any challenges coming their way in future.

  1.  The Two factor theory (Herzberg’s motivation-Hygiene theory):

The two factor theory as its name suggests considers two factors while determining the satisfaction level of employees within an organization. One factor is directly related to the job at hand and it drives the basic satisfaction levels. The factors are called motivators. However, another set of factors known as Hygiene factors do not provide positive satisfaction, but their absence results in dissatisfaction.

The Motivators i.e. factors which provide basic satisfaction are:

  • Challenging work
  • Promotion
  • Recognition
  • Responsibility

And some of the Hygiene factors, absence of which can cause dissatisfaction amongst the employees (Herzberg, 2005) are:

  • Job Security
  • Designation
  • Perks
  • Work conditions
  • Overall work environment

Now the two factor theory is very important in case of WTD. The basic problem with the firm is lack of motivation. The employees seem dissatisfied and the work environment is not positive. No one is taking the responsibility and the senior management is at cross roads with each other. I will try my best on the hygiene factors as that will help in reducing the inherent dissatisfaction amongst the employees.

B. Recommendations for improvement

Now to make sure that World Trade market Exhibition is a success for the objectives of our organization, I will use the following strategies:

  • CE should have a meeting with all the DCEs and emphasize the importance of individual objectives for each of the units headed by each DCE.
  • Funds and resource allocated to each unit should be in accordance with the requirements for that specific unit.
  • Staff movement should be monitored professionally and incentive must be provided to people putting in extra effort.
  • Inculcate a health promotion and environment in the organization, wherein individuals are respected and appreciated.
  • A proper performance evaluation program in place which monitors, evaluates and rewards high performers.
  • Organize team bonding activities to make inculcate the culture of mutual respect.

LO 4

A. Career development through managerial and personal skills

We use our knowledge to guide others in our day to day life. Be it advising a friend on how to go about finding a new job or guiding our kid on how to embark their first day at college, guiding others is a part and parcel of life. This mentoring should not be limited to personal space and must be a very significant part of the professional development (space) as well. It can help in increasing the productivity of other people, provide them career growth, and mentoring as a whole can be very rewarding personally as well. We need good managerial and leadership skills in order to succeed and achieve professional growth.

Let us consider The Three Levels of Leadership Model to analyse my skills as a person managing or leading a group of people. On the basis of skills possessed by me I feel I am a very good and effective leader. Let us analyse the same with respect to a model.

The three levels referred to in the model are Personal, private and public. The outer levels are Public and Private Levels, while Inner level is the Personal level. Both have their own significance. For a leader to be effective, he must work on all three levels in parallel (Clawson, 2002).

The outer level inherently decides what a leader must do with individuals or groups. A leader should be able to maintain positive environment within the team. He is responsible for the group’s action and results. I believe I have got that human touch and I am social in nature, thus I understand the problem of my team mates and hence I am in a good position to lead them. I take care of my subordinates and make sure they are satisfied with their professional life. I can motivate and select them individually which in turn results in a positive result for the whole team. The employee satisfaction levels are high and so is the team performance and hence it is a win – win situation for all the stakeholders involved.Clear and precise communication will help in avoiding the differences and I believe I am very good in communicating.

Let us move on to the inner level. Personal Level as its name suggests is specific to an individual. Personal development will only add to the leadership qualities. I want to keep developing my technical know how to be up to date with the latest trends in the modern world. I possess the zeal to learn and also the cultivation of right attitude of is of utmost importance. I possess all these qualities and that’s what makes me an effective leader and a good manager.

At WTD I need to make use of all my skills to make sure that the organization reaches its desired objectives. The strategies designed should be implemented to make sure that the WTD is well known across the world which in turn will aid the development of our organization. My skills will help me in taking the crucial decision in the best interest of the organization. Considering that I am just fresh out of college and I only possess theoretical knowledge, the working experience at WTD will bring in a lot of challenges and test my analytical and decision making skills at regular intervals.But I have faith in my abilities and zeal to succeed which will help me in overcoming all the obstacles.After spending some time with the organization I will be well versed with the market dynamics at work and hence the career growth will be very significant. I will leverage all my skills and abilities for the success of the project at hand i.e. promoting Whitechapel Tourism Development as a famous tourist destination and make sure that I succeed in my first corporate assignment with flying colours.

B. My future development plan

No one is perfect and that holds true for each an individual in this world. One should be humble and accept this fact with grace. One must keep developing in order to make sure that the personal and professional growth never stagnates.

For my personal development I have some plans in mind. First and foremost is to get rid of my weakness. I am very social and that has an impact on my relationship with my colleagues as well as it topples the professional and personal work life balance. I will try and be informal with my colleagues but that should be within acceptable limits. A leader should be respected and that little space goes a long way in achieving the same.

With more responsibilities comes more work and with more work comes stress. Hence managing stress is an important part of the modern life. Keeping calm in pressure situation is the need of the hour. I will try to work on these skills of mine. I will carry out physical activities and take regular breaks which will help a long way in managing this problem.

I would like to develop the following qualities in me in near future:

  • Continuously update my skills as per changing market dynamics.
  • Skills for team co-operation and building.
  • Embrace technology in personal as well as professional life.
  • Time management skills.

All these skills will help in my development and hence help me achieve heights which I always imagined.

References

Bruch, H., & Ghoshal, S., 2004. A bias for action: How effective managers harness their willpower, achieve results, and stop wasting time. Harvard Business Press. Boston.

Caproni, P. J., & Arias, M. E., 1997. Managerial skills training from a critical perspective. Journal of Management Education21(3), pp292-308.

Clawson, J. G., 2002. Level three leadership. Prentice Hall. Virginia.

El-Sabaa, S., 2001. The skills and career path of an effective project manager.International journal of project management19(1), pp1-7.

Herzberg, F. 2005. Motivation-hygiene theory. chair in human resources at the State University of New York–Buffalo and was faculty director of the Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership there. Previously he was Research Professor of Management at Georgia State University. He has written over fifty books and over 135 other publications., 61.

Huitt, W., 2004. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Educational psychology interactive.

Komaki, J. L., 1986. Toward effective supervision: An operant analysis and comparison of managers at work. Journal of Applied Psychology71(2), pp270.

McGregor, D., 1960. The human side of enterprise. New York21.

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