Pearson BTEC HNC/D Diploma Marketing - Unit : 15 Understanding People in Organisations

Unit Description

This solution is related Understanding People Organisations Assignment given in university of Bradford. One of the most famous name in UK education.

Task 1 Introduction to Healthy Workplace

A healthy workplace is where the people belonging to that workplace are safe, happy and satisfied. It is a place where the people belonging to the system are fully and completely happy about the belonging and environment there to. (McShane, Glinow, & Sharma, 2011) A healthy workplace in other words is a comprehensive and integrated approach to health and healthcare of individuals belonging to a particular workplace or to an organization as a whole. (McShane, Glinow, & Sharma, 2011)

It is this health care and social care workplace, that defines and sets scope for many broader range of health issues like physical and psychosocial, environment, health practices, personal resources, etc. through various programs, policies and practices which makes these health care practices popular and well understood by each and every memo=beer of an organization where this is implemented. (McShane, Glinow, & Sharma, 2011)

Purpose and Structure of the Assignment: – The assignment is about discussing the importance of Healthy Workplace and lays importance on organization structure and culture and there types. Also importance is given to motivation and leadership in a healthy workplace along with their theories. Finally the assignment also talks about power equation in an organization.

Advantages of Healthy Workplace

  • On the employees front, it would help the employees in being fit and thus a fit employee will be more motivated to work, thus the organization will benefit indirectly as the absents and loss of work due to an employee’s absents will reduce, hence the work efficiency and effectiveness would improve of an organization,
  • As the employee will be satisfied and happy at work as he will be both recognized at work and also he would be protected and made satisfied, thus this would increase an organization’s chance to managing human resource well and also would reduce the cost of hiring newer employees and then training them for existing roles,

TASK 2.1 Organisational Structure

Organizational structure can be defined as the way the workers within a business are organized and the way they are related to each other. Like the director is the head of any business and under him comes the manager. (McShane, Glinow, & Sharma, 2011) A manager has team leaders appointed below him, team leaders work under the manager, and then comes the operatives who are appointed by the team leaders to work under them. This explains the hierarchy of a business, which clears out the roles of each of the worker that they have to carry out and shows that who has the authority over whom,  which explains  the structure of an organization. (Baligh, 2006) Different organizational structures suit different types of organizations depending upon the size of the business and the factors which are out of its control (external factors) for example nature of the customers and the spread of its customers. The organizational structure can be divided into various types depending upon factors such as style of working with leading peoples i.e leadership, geographical factors, kinds of organizations, etc. (Stanford, 2010)

Task 2.2 Theories of Organisation Structure

1.      Systems Theory

         Introduction – System theory was coined in the early stages of the 19th century, according to this theory organisation structure can be divided into small and related systems. Thus according to this theory systems and processes are a sub part of the organisational structure and it is only because of these small yet interrelated systems that the structure of the organisation is successful and functions effectively.

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A set of biological, social, technological or material partners sharing a common purpose with mutual beneficial interaction, is termed as a system. Systems theory is a philosophical body of principles presented for acceptance or belief of characterizing systems as abstract organizations that are free from substance, type, time and space. (Koontzl & O’Donnel, 1964)  Systems theories are linked up to both epistemological and ontological views .There are various versions of the systems theory which are related to some other fields, such as general systems theory, cybernetics, operational analysis and the systems approach. (Koontzl & O’Donnel, 1964)

Advantages of the Systems Theory
  • Holistic and integrated view: – Systems theory gives a very holistic and integrated view which is of great help to the manager.
  • Integrated thinking: – The manager must think of the organization as a whole instead of the disintegrated activities. Hence, he can think as a while and do the planning.
  • Interrelated and interdependent:-The subsystems are all interdependent and interrelated to each other. Therefore the manager can have a better understanding of the effects of the disturbance in one part of the organization on the other part of the organization.(Koontzl & O’Donnel, 1964)
Disadvantages of the Systems Theory
  • Absence of specific tools and techniques: – The systems theory doesn’t present definite tools and techniques in order to meet a need or satisfy a requirement for the practicing managers.
  • Abstract and vague: – Systems theory is judged with disapproval for the reason of being too much abstruse. It is very difficult to understand and is also not clearly expressed. Hence it cannot be applied to the practical problems.(Skyttner, 2001)

2.      Human Relation Approach

Human relations approach is the neo-classical form of theory. This theory came into existence in the year 1920 and came out of the movement of human relations. (Sanford, 1973) A greater emphasis was made on the machines managed by man, by this movement. It focused on the importance of each individual together with the public relations with the groups. (Sanford, 1973) The theory lays its emphasis on the sociology and psychology for understanding the people and also the each group’s organization behaviour. Between 1927 and 1932, Elton Mayo and his associates organized studies in the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company in Chicago, the United States of America. More than 20,000 workers were covered under this study. (Gross, 2009)

3.      Contingency Theory

Introduction – Fred F. Fielder, the man behind the contingency theory coined this theory in 1960’s and made it famous through his writings in various books and journals. The contingency theory is also a situational analysis of style of leadership. In this theory Fielder stated that when it comes to selecting effective style of leadership which will help the organisation to achieve its goal and objectives, it will depend on the situation which style suits the organisation and which does not.

Contingency theory of leadership is a situational theory, it is a theory which is not same at every point in time and keeps changing with time passage. A contingency theory takes into consideration the effectiveness of leadership at different times with the passage in time. According to this theory any leader and his style is not effective at every time, however it depends on time frame and what is the situation where in leadership style is adapted to that describes the effectiveness of a particular leader or his style of leadership. (McShane, Glinow, & Sharma, 2011)

Key Points of Contingency theory

  • There is no trusted success formula of leader or his style of leading, however it depends purely on when and how a particular leader is implemented that describes the effectiveness of a leadership,
  • Secondly, what is the situation at the organization and how the employees are functioning with the given environment also describes and affects the success of any leadership style.
  • The contingency theory in a nutshell says effectiveness of a leader and his styles of leading depend purely on situation prevalent in the organization or any place where it is implemented. Thus in other words effectiveness of any leader depends upon the situation and other variables namely:
  • Customers: – Style of leadership will depend on the nature of customers, knowledge that the customers have about the organisation’s products, nature of purchase etc. Hence style of leadership ill directly be depended on the kind of customer an organisation has this can even be extended to the one off case which means if an organisation has one or few customers every day style of leadership can vary with each or set of customers as well.
  • Suppliers: – Similar to the customers is the likes of the suppliers as style of leadership will vary with the nature, knowledge, reach of the supplier in addition there can be other factors like variety with the supplier, capacity of the supplier etc.

With customers and suppliers Contingency theory also focuses on distributors, Government, Unions, and Technology etc.

Advantages of Contingency Theory

  • A leader gets an opportunity to try newer and innovative style ever time situations arise in front of him, also many-a-times when the leader is not able to solve issues effectively he may think out of the box, thus thinking capability of a leader will also be enhanced,
  • Again Contingency theory also helps a leader in analysing every situation which arises in front of him and also allow the leader to approach each situation the way leader wants to approach it, thus giving the leader flexibility in thinking and working,

Disadvantage of Contingency Theory

Contingency theory has the biggest drawback that it does not have any set platform for the leader to think thus many times leader may be confused or he may find himself entangled in situations so much that he cannot think differently, thus contingency theory lags in giving a base for leader’s thinking.

4.      Scientific Approach

Scientific theory was introduced by Frederick Taylor in 1911 and is one of the oldest organisational theories, according to this theory Taylor mentioned that organisation is a collection of parts and thus functioning of these parts which are departments can be studied the same way as other machinery tools are studied. Hence he used various scientific techniques to depict that how science can be related to organisational function. (Sheldrake, 2003) This theory had its greatest advantage that this theory for the first time tried to understand organisation and its processes. However the biggest drawback of this theory was the ignorance of dynamic environment around the organisation, which means there no proved thumb rule that how organisation will function under different circumstances as the case is in science. (Sheldrake, 2003)

Task 3.1 Organisational Culture

The organizational culture is the culture of the organization; it is the behavioural patterns, ethics, and beliefs of the organization. Every organization adopts different cultures like hierarchy or control culture, market or compete culture, clan or collaborate culture and adhocracy or create culture. These are the four major types of organizational culture. (Witte & Muijen, 1999)

Types Of Organizational Culture

  • The Hierarchy (Control) Culture: – Earlier in the modern era the approach towards organizing was totally based on the work of Max Weber, a German sociologist, who used to study the government organizations in the Europe in early 1990’s. The organizations faced various challenges, the major of which was that they had to very efficiently produce goods and services for a society that too complex. This happened during the turn of the twentieth century. Its major challenge was to give rise to reliable, efficient, smooth output and also which is predictable. (Pfister, 2009 )
  • The Market (Compete) Culture: – In the 1960’s another form of organizational culture became popular as the organizations started facing new and competitive challenges. This form of culture was based on totally different assumptions fundamentally than the hierarchical form of culture. It was based on the works of Oliver Williamson in 1975, Bill Ouchy in 1981, and some of their colleagues. The designs that were new were termed as the market form of organization. Here the word market is not being used synonymously to the marketing planning or segmentation or to the potential customers in the market. But, it is being used for a type of organization which functions as a market in itself. (Rao, 2000)
  • The Clan (Collaborate) Culture: – This the third form of organizational culture. It is referred to as clan or collaborate culture because of its similarity to family type of organization. The basic assumptions in this form of culture are the here it is believed that the environment can best be managed by the by working in a team and development of the employees. The customers should be regarded as partners, and that a humane work environment should be created. (Pfister, 2009 )

Task 3.2 Power

Power for different people has different meaning. Power in an organization follows hierarchy. Power can be defined as a potential or capacity of an individual to influence or bring about a change in the behaviour and functioning of other individuals around him. Power in other words is an ability of an individual to bring about a change or to manage change within the organization or group. (Llewellyn & Hindmarsh, 2010)

Types of Power

Power can be of 5 types namely:-

  • Coercive Power:- Coercive power is the power a person gets over other by creating fear in others, for example:-In an health care organization, power that a doctor has over nurses that due to ineffective working the doctor can tell the nurse to leave the job, thus the power a doctor has over a nurse is coercive power.
  • Reward Power: – Reward power is a power that a leader gets by rewarding the employees or individuals in the organization for their performance or for other issues. For example: – A doctor may be given a salary hike by a hospital due to effective performance, thus this will be reward power.
  • Legitimate Power: – Legitimate power comes to an individual because of the role he has in an organization for example: an HR executive has a power to throw someone out of the organization; this power comes due to the role the HR person plays in the organization.

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TASK 4 Organisation Dynamics Feature

TASK 4.1 Motivation

Motivation is referred to as the process that gives a start-up, shows the direction and maintains behaviours that are oriented towards the goal. Motivation can be defined as something that forces us to act, whether it is cooking food to fill our stomach or going out for shopping for getting the best dress for a party. Motivation is the driving force, an inner drive to act or behave in a particular way. It has its roots in the psychological, behavioural, cognitive and the social areas.  Motivation can arise from certain physical needs as well like sleep, hunger, sex, etc. (Beck, 2003)

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Motivation Theory

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

Introduction

Maslow wanted to know the source of motivation of people. Hence, in the year 1943, he stated that every individual is motivated only for achieving certain needs. Thus, he created hierarchy of needs that includes five motivational needs and is depicted within a pyramid. (Beck, 2003)

  • Biological and Psychological needs: – Food, shelter, air, water, sex, sleep, love and affection.
  • Safety needs: – Protection, security, freedom from fear, law and order, stability, limits.
  • Social needs: – Love, affection and warmth.
  • Esteem needs: – Self-respect prestige, achievement, dominance and status.
  • Self-Actualization needs: – Self-fulfilment and realization of the personal potential.

 Advantage of Maslow’s Theory

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is of greatest benefit at places where the employees donor work to their potential, thus at such places this theory can be applied to find where each and every employee of an organization stands and how an organization can effect and motivate the employee.

Disadvantage

The biggest drawback of this theory is over simplification of needs and motivation approach many a time it so happens that the employee does not himself knows what will motivate him ,thus to find this the organization will have to go deep in an employee’s life, which will be complex, thus Maslow’s theory will be ineffective at such places.

Task 4.2 Leadership

Leadership can be defined as an art of leading others for the purpose of creating a result deliberately that would otherwise have never happened. The CEO of a company can be a leader whereas a first year employee who has the ability to lead her or his professional development with team towards success can also be a leader.  (Llewellyn & Hindmarsh, 2010)

Characteristics of a good leader

  • Self-Awareness: – A good leader must have a very well knowledge of his inner emotional state. He must be aware of his strengths and weaknesses.
  • Self-Direction: – A good leader must have the quality of directing himself powerfully and effectively. He must have the skill to get his work done.
  • Vision: – The leader must regard his goal as greater than himself.
  • Ability to Motivate: – The leaders don’t need to tell people what they have to do but people automatically come to help them.
  • Social Awareness: – A leader who is good enough must understand the social networks. The other part of the leadership is the key influencers in the social network.

Conclusion

As a healthy workplace is defined as a place where things flow in a sync. A place where the employees are recognized for their work, where employees health care is utmost important and where employee is satisfied as his private and work life is completely balanced, such a kind of workplace is known as health workplace. (Gross, 2009)

A workplace can have structure, this is known as organization structure, and an organization structure is a blueprint as to how authority and responsibility in an organization flows. An organization structure is the rough sketch of how the organization looks and who stands where in any organization. These structures could be many like Line structure, Functional structure etc. The choice of structure depends and varies room organization to organization. (Koontzl & O’Donnel, 1964)

References

Baligh, H. H. (2006). Organization Structures: Theory and Design, Analysis and Prescription. USA: Springer.

Beck, R. C. (2003). Motivation: Theories And Principles. (R. C. Beck, Ed.) New Delhi: Pearson Education India.

Gross, J. (2009). Dimensions of Organisation Development. (J. Gross, Ed.) Western Australia: Wordclay.

Koontzl, H., & O’Donnel, C. (1964). Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions. (H. Koontzl, & C. O’Donnel, Eds.) New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Llewellyn, N., & Hindmarsh, J. (2010). Organisation, Interaction and Practice: Studies of Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis. (N. Llewellyn, & J. Hindmarsh, Eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McShane, S. L., Glinow, M. A., & Sharma, R. R. (2011). Organizational Behavior. (S. L. McShane, & M. A. Glinow, Eds.) Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Pfister, J. A. (2009 ). Managing Organizational Culture for Effective Internal Control: From Practice to Theory. (J. A. Pfister, Ed.) London: Springer.

Rao, M. T. (2000). Office Organisation And Management. (M. T. Rao, Ed.) New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Dist.

Sanford, A. C. (1973). Human relations: theory and practice. London: Merrill.

Sheldrake, J. (2003). Management Theory. Derby: Cengage Learning EMEA.

Skyttner, L. (2001). General Systems Theory: Ideas & Applications. Singapore: World Scientific.

Stanford, N. (2010). Guide to Organisation Design: Creating High Performance And Adaptable Enterprises. (N. Stanford, Ed.) Great Britain: Profile Books.

Witte, K. D., & Muijen, J. V. (1999). Organizational Culture. European journal of work and organizational psychology , 8 (4), 112.

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