Pearson BTEC Level 4/5 HNC/D Diploma Travel and Tourism - Unit 7 : Sustainable Tourism Development

Unit Description

This solution is part of Icon college sustainable tourism development assignment, discuss about the development of particular destination.

Task 1

Discuss how your Project Proposals will benefit all Stake Holders, Public Sector Organizations, Private Sector Organizations and the Host Community of the Selected Destination.

The Kenya tourism industry is responsible for handling tourism in Kenya. Tourism industry if not properly planned and managed can then leave some permanent effects on the various elements of the destination like the physical, cultural, social, and economic elements. It is the second largest source of revenue for the country. Tourism development can even lead to effects like Kenya becoming alienating to the local residents;it might become overcrowded and noisy, and might even become a pressure on the infrastructure of the destination. Tourism development plan may not be designed in an inappropriate manner due to lack of proper tourism policies and even due to lack of some national and local tourism planning and regulation (Weaver & Oppermann, 2000). Thus it is the role and responsibility of the Government of Kenya, various private and public organizations and the stakeholders involved in the tourism sector of Kenya to ensure that while making plans for the development of tourism the long-term prosperity and most importantly the quality of life of the generations to come are thus not placed at risk. Thus it is necessary to develop a sustainable tourism which requires a lot of proper process of planning and management that will be beneficial for the host country as well as for the organizations that are situated in Kenya. The Multinational corporations always benefit the most from a tourism project proposal; this is because their main business strategy is to make profit on a global level. This particular project proposal will benefit them as they will like to invest in this tourism development project by which they can earn a lot of money from the foreign tourists. It is a world known fact that the tourism sector is such a sector that contributes in the economic growth of any region; it brings about development in Kenya. Tourism industry produces a lot of social benefits for the region, like creation of new jobs, improvement of infrastructure and development, etc. Through this proposal tourism will be making it possible for making it possible of meeting of different cultures. The proposal will also be positively contributing to the maintenance and improvement of the natural environment of the host country by means of protecting, maintaining of various national parks and other kinds of protected areas.In the creation and implementation of a project proposal it is very important for the government policies to play an important role in order to bring the goals of the proposals to life. Policies of the Kenyan government have to be taken into account before the proposal is implemented(McKercher, Cros & McKercher, 2002).The private as well as the public sector organizations have realized the ability of the proposals in order to raise their companies to a higher level. The project proposal once implemented will gain a lot of media coverage and thus will attract foreign visitors and will lead to an increase in benefits of the economy and will also help in creation of new job opportunities. This is the reason why the organizations play the role of major key players while bidding for and hosting for such tourist proposals. Tourism projects have different effects on the various aspects of the local region, likely the social and cultural aspects of that region. Kenya will benefit as the interaction between foreign tourists and the residents of the country increases. The foreigners when get introduced to the customs, traditions and standards of the host community they might like to adapt some of it in their personal lives and thus may help in promoting the local culture all over the world. The tourism projects will help the local region in an opportunity for job creation and will also provide and generate revenue at the international, national, regional and local levels. It will help the host country’s economy when the money that will come into the country will help in the development of the urban and rural areas of the host country which will in turn help in stimulating various new business enterprises.

icon college sustainable tourism development assignment

Task 2

Examine the various approaches to tourism planning and development including the features of tourism development and methods of measuring the impacts of tourism.

Planning is about setting and meeting objectives in an industry or organization. Although various approaches have been developed in general planning, like integrated, interactive, collaborative, bottom-up etc.

TOURISM PLANNING

  1. THE NATURE OF PLANNING- Planning is the most essential activity in order to achieve the goals of a tourism development industry. According to various researchers the main focus of planning is to generate a lot of income and employment for its country. It also ensures that the resources are consumed so that the traveller is satisfied. Planning for an underdeveloped destination can be done by receiving guidelines from the other tourist destinations so as to develop tourism in the country. On the other hand for already developed countries planning is used as a means to revitalize the tourism industry in the country and thus to maintain its future in the country. Development process in any country depends on the local and the central government of a country (Sharpley, 2000). This takes place with consultation with the various private and public sectors of the country. In order to successfully design a development plan in any country it is very necessary to have a good understanding of the various objectives that needs to be achieved at all levels by a country.
  2. PLANNING APPROACHES- A major tradition to tourism planning is the kind of approach that any country has taken into consideration. Tourism is beneficial for both the residents as well as the tourists. Environmental objects of a country are thus promoted as an asset so as to increase the markets interest and thus increase the economic benefits of the country. As researchers have remarked that the local residents are not included in the planning processes of the country and are thus not given much of a consideration. Thus this approach is then developed with the help of various politicians and leaders who believe in the economic growth of the country and are always ready to promote it (Miller, 2001).
  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF PLANNING-When a plan is created it then needs to be implemented. Various tools, techniques and approaches are used in order to implement planning. These techniques are, for a better understanding of the term tourism it is really necessary to separate the various components involved in the tourism industry.Studies done by researches have thus identified that the planning practices have a wide variety of planning tools and techniques that can be used in order to fulfil the objectives of the industry.
  4. OUTPUTS OF TOURISM PLANNING-Once the plan is implemented it is then seen how the output of the plan is.In the tourism industry, there are examples where partnership arrangements are highly effective for the success of tourism planning and development. Since the public sector is mainly concerned with the provision of services to the residents, the resolving of land-use conflicts and the formulation and implementation of development policies, and the private sector is mainly concerned with profit of the company, partnerships between the private and public sector on various issues can benefit new tourist destinations. Community involvement in tourism can be viewed from two perspectives: in the benefits of tourism development and in the decision-making process.
  1. MEASURING TOURISM IMPACTS- The aim of planning is to evaluate whether objectives have been fulfilled through measuring the economic, environmental and social impacts. A review of tourism studies shows that development is mainly associated with economic prosperity. Therefore, the most frequently used measures in tourism research have been concerned with the economic impacts. Researchers have asserted that tourism economic potential can be understood as the gross increase in the income of people located in an area, usually measured in monetary terms, and the changes in incomes that may occur in the absence of the tourism Measures dealing with the direct benefits of tourism include labour earnings, business receipts, number of jobs, and tax revenue (Ritchie & Crouch, 2003).

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Task 3

Discuss how Traditional Approach to Planning is different from Planning for Sustainable Development and examine the Factors influencing Sustainable Tourism.

Traditional Approach to planning assumes the fact that future can be known. In such a case the company can setcertain reliable long-term objectives and goals and thus control the environment of the destination in a manner in which the goals can be met. Such a plan focuses on setting out goals that help an organization into getting itself into its desired future. Traditional approach divides the goals, the objectives and the roles and responsibilities of the organization into certain organizational areas. In this type of approach the industry works in quarterly or mostly annual cycles so as to plan their goals for the coming year.A long list of goals and objectives are produced that are made in order to achieve a common goal. Such an approach to planning is driven by the insights and needs of the leaders who believe in themselves and the fact that they can improve the future of the organization. The success of the organization as a whole is the main motive of the industry.Priorities are established in such an approach in which the industry works in a manner in which they can achieve those goals.

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Sustainable development planning is a type of planning in which the development is conducted with without any kind of depletion of the natural resources. Sustainable development is focused on maintain and promoting the principles of the industry and thus maintain a healthy life on the planet. It focuses on such a desirable future state for all the humans that the external environment in which they are living is beneficial for them. The conditions of living should be sustainable and the natural environment remains intact (Mowforth & Munt, 2008). It does so that the future generations may also get to live a healthy life. Sustainable development thus is concerned forthe natural, social, political, and economic elements of the country and the various challenges that are faced by the humanity.Such an approach helps us in understanding ourselves and the world in which we are living.

Sustainable tourism is the in thing these days as all want to live a healthy life. In most of the county’s most of the people are living under the poverty line. Most poor people do not have the basic needs required to live a healthy life. Sustainable tourism will help in fighting these issues. Inequality is on the rise in many countries as a matter of fact this type of tourism will thus undermine poverty and will thus promote sustainable development in the country. The environments in many countries have been polluted to its extreme which thus makes it difficult for the people to live a healthy life. Concentration of heavy amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded beyond the normal limit in many countries. If we want to live a healthy and long life we need to make the best use of sustainable tourism in our country.

Task 4

Analyse the Supply and Demand for Tourism at present and Assess Current Issues in Tourism Development Planning and Suggest Strategies for the Management of these Issues.

The demand in tourism industry refers to the tourists who travel or plan to travel and thus avail the facilities and services provided to a tourist. A tourist destinations becomes famous in the tourism industry when there area number of tourist destinations in the country. Thus in any country the demand for tourism is shaped by the number of tourism opportunities. Tourism opportunities in any country represent a mix of attractions. For Kenya to succeed in this industry it is important for it to provide high quality of service as well as facilities. Factors that affect tourism are disposable income, availability of time, changes that take place in the demographic composition of any society (Douglas & Derrett, 2001). Basic services that any tourists requires like the availability of proper accommodation, transportation which is reliable and readily available, level of infrastructure, etc. The tourism policies that are set by the Kenyan government also affect the demand for tourism in the present scenario. The manner in which the destination is promoted by the media also increases or decreases the demand of tourism of any country in today’s time. Supply on the other hand is the provision various facilities and services of the tourism industry that are provided by the host government. Tourism resources in the tourism industry thus range from the various natural to man-made resources provided by the destination. Tourism services include various kinds of infrastructure required by the tourists like telecommunication, accommodation and transportation. The services provided by the tour companies, transport rental agencies, etc. all come under the supply side in tourism.

The problem that are being faced by tourism development planning in Kenya is the lack of proper infrastructure and the issue of disposition of the improper solid waste practices and various sewage that is produced because of the number of tourists that cause serious environmental pollution. Lack of proper procedures and standards to examine the strategies that can be used in order to develop tourism and the policies related to planning are also the issues that need to be booked into (Smith, V. L. 2012). The eagerness to earn foreign exchange by the organizations of Kenya and the lack of strong institutional fundamentals which are necessary to effectively manage the environmental resources are also issues that are pertaining in tourism industry.The participation of the local organizations in fighting with the pollution caused by the tourists is a matter of concern. It is the responsibility of the institutions to ensure a clean, green and attractive tourism destination image of its host country but this is not taking place. Other issues that are pertaining this industry are that the policies and the law systems are quite inadequate and inconsistent and are not at all in accordance with the reality of today’s time. In the tourism industry the lack of understanding and acknowledgement of international standards and principles is a huge issue. The government of Kenya in such a case needs to step forward and take strict actions. It is the lack of initiative on the behalf of the government that the industry is facing so many challenges. The various institutions required to understand needs their responsibilities and thus act accordingly. They need to ensure the safety of the people and the environment.

Task 5

Identify Positive and Negative Impacts of Tourism and Investigate Strategies which can be used to Minimize Negative Impacts and Maximize Positive Impacts of Tourism in your selected Destination.

Tourism tends to have positive as well as negative impact on the host country. Despite the various policies that the country implements in order to save the tourism tends to spoil everything. Tourism has a negative impact mostly in severely crowded attractions that are there in the country. For example in Kenya the destination has a lot of beaches which have been polluted by the tourists. The coral reefs have been destroyed;the marine species are thus adversely affected by the tourists as they do not take proper measures while visiting the place. The vegetation is degraded and the environmental regulations which have been set by the government of the country are either ignored by the tourists or are not effectively implemented by the government itself. The weak institutions of the country are not capable of handling the corruption, mismanagement that is taking place in the country. The country is lacking in inadequate political policies and also in administrative capacity. The tourist industry in Kenya provides the country with around 192 million dollars every year (Kotler, Kotler, Bowen & Makens, 2006). The foreign exchange reserve that the country receives every year does help the economy of the country. It helps the locals of the country in building new schools and hospitals for them. It provides them better infrastructure and the basic needs of the residents are also fulfilled by the government of the country by the help of the foreign reserve received from tourism. Kenya has seen an improvement in its economy as new jobs have been created in the last few years. But apart from the positive side, at the same time this tourism trade even has a lot of negative impact on the country. The ecology of the parks of the country have become fragile, animal feeding and breeding have been disrupted, pollution that is created by the tourists have been harmful for the residents of the country.The country requires the foreign exchange revenue in order to improve its economy. The government can create tourist attractions in the country so that more foreign tourists visit the destination. They can also bring about improvement in their services and facilities so that the tourists feel comfortable in their visit and thus plan to visit the country again.  The government can maintain a sound ecosystem which will attract more tourists and thus will keep them at a sustainable level. The tourism board of Kenya can take certain measures by which they can try to reduce the negative impacts that terrorist attacks have left on the country. They can recreate a new image for the country by giving it an all new makeover. This will increase tourist footfalls as terrorism has a devastating impact on the image of any country, thus repositioning Kenya is very important for the tourism board in the minds of the tourists so that it leaves positive impact on the people (Jennings, 2001). Providing incentives to the various industries will help in aiming and protecting the environment of the country. By improving the policies implemented by the government and by strictly enforcing certain environmental frameworks and regulations for creating environmental awareness for all the people in and outside the country will surely help the tourism industry in making the country in a tourist friendly destination.

References

Weaver, D., & Oppermann, M. (2000). Tourism Management. John Wiley and Sons.

McKercher, B., Cros, H. D., & McKercher, R. B. (2002). Cultural tourism: the partnership between tourism and cultural heritage management. Haworth Hospitality Press.

Jennings, G. (2001). Tourism research. John Wiley and sons Australia, Ltd.

Kotler, P., Kotler, P., Bowen, J. T., & Makens, J. C. (2006). Marketing for hospitality and tourism. Pearson Education India.

Smith, V. L. (Ed.). (2012). Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (2008). Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalisation and new tourism in the third world. Routledge.

Douglas, N., & Derrett, R. (2001). Special interest tourism. John Wiley and Sons Australia, Ltd.

Ritchie, J. B., & Crouch, G. I. (2003). The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. Cabi.

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